Protection against Destitution and Hunger
Hunger and destitution led by Poverty plays a vital role in diminishing the status of wellbeing of the vulnerable group. According to National Poverty Report (2015-16), the 24.3 percent people are still living below poverty line. The most vulnerable group of poor includes women, children, disabled and old age people. The majority of the poor people live in rural area and these people are unskilled, and engage in informal sector. The poor also lack in all of the basic human, physical and productive assets and have limited or no access to essential social services. These social and economic constraints lead towards destitution and protection against these constraints becomes paramount and far-reaching. Through the medium of better Research & Development, SPRC aims to contribute in policy-making and advocacy for the protection against destitution and hunger in the most eminent manner.
Protections Against Unemployment
Unemployment is increasing with the increase in population day by day, especially in developing countries. According to the Economic Survey of Pakistan (2018-19), the 3.79 million people are unemployed in Pakistan. The scarcity of employment opportunities have increased and real earnings have declined. Currently, the total labor force in Pakistan is 66 million and out of total labor force, 94.21 percent people are employed and 5.79 percent people are unemployed. SPRC aims to introduce sustainable interventions for protection against unemployment, which refers to the opening up of new opportunities where more and more people can be employed and the existing labor force should be given security through productive social protection and effective rules and regulations of labor market.
Protection Against Old Age vulnerabilities
Vulnerabilities in old age are the serious matter of concern and pose greater challenges in a broader perspective. Old age population in Pakistan is estimated to be around 12.5 million, which makes 7 percent of the country’s total population. It is expected to be even higher increase in the elderly population of Pakistan in the near future. Older people face different challenges related to health, economic and social issues. Older people also suffer from poverty due to lack of physical and psychological ability to work. Ageing population increases dependency on the working population as their contribution to the economy declines and their needs increase with the age. The elderly women are worse off than elderly men in terms of physical, social and economic wellbeing, especially in the developing economies like Pakistan with high gender inequality. Pakistan’s economy needs to be prepared to deal with this incoming change in demographics, in order to maximize the nation’s wellbeing. Hence, there is need to provide social assistance, insurance and security for the improvement of well-being of older persons through inclusive and defined social protection system in the country.
SPRC Dialogue Series Future of eobi
Protections against Sickness and infirmity
Poor health conditions leads to sickness and infirmity. Ailing conditions of people needs to be protected by the state and other stakeholders of social sector. The healthcare system of Pakistan is not so much appealing, which puts extra pressure to provide the better healthcare facilities by developing a good healthcare system. Vulnerable groups including poor class, old age and disabled people, who are more affected by sickness and infirmity and need to be protected on priority basis. SPRC aims to enable protection against sickness and infirmity through better policy-making and advocacy by collaborating with Government and other key stakeholders.
Protections against Severe Disabilities
Persons with disabilities include those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments. A person with disability cannot participate fully and effectively in society on an equal basis with others. In Pakistan, persons with disability including children faces range of attitudinal, physical and systematic barriers when they try to access the health facilities, education, trainings and employment opportunities. Therefore, SPRC aims to look for the actions and interventions, which are required to ensure the access to health facilities, education, training and employment opportunities on an equal basis with others.
Public health is the science and systems designed to create community, statewide and nationwide conditions that promote health, prevent disease, and encourage healthy behaviors across the entire population. Good health results not only from proper medical care but also from efforts to craft and implement public policies and programs to protect and improve the health of all people. Examples of public health efforts include educating the public about healthier choices, promoting physical activity and fitness, preventing disease outbreaks and the spread of infectious diseases, ensuring safe food and water in communities, preparing for emergency, preventing injury, treating water with fluoride for oral and dental health, and creating smoke-free environments and discouraging tobacco use. SPRC aims to work in the domain of policymaking and highlight public health issues and create awareness among communities regarding the subject through its hardcore research.
Climate Change threatens people with food and water scarcity, increased flooding, extreme heat, more disease, and economic loss. Human migration and conflict can be a result. The World Health Organization (WHO) calls climate change the greatest threat to global health in the 21st century. Pakistan is also in the top list of those countries who are extremely affected by the deadly consequences of climate change. There is a wide range of research conducted on the above-mentioned issue globally and nationally and SPRC also highlighted this issue and wants to introduce sustainable policy measures at national level to ensure the protection of people which are affected due to climate change.
A pandemic is a disease outbreak that spreads across countries or continents. It affects more people and takes more lives than an epidemic. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 to be a pandemic when it became clear that the illness was severe and that it was spreading quickly over a wide area. Pandemics not only causes mortality and health related loss, but they cause huge burden on the economies as well. Pakistan in the wake of Covid-19 also faced huge socio-economic risks but timely management to deal with the crises is acknowledged by the global community. SPRC is one of those research think tanks who produced a wide range of research on Covid-19 and published a report based on the socio-economic vulnerabilities faced by the people during this pandemic and we aim to work further in the policy making regarding the social protection during pandemics and other shocks.